Thursday, October 17, 2019

Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Criminology - Essay Example Considering non-human victims of harm in criminology involves victims as animals and victims of environmental crime. The international centre for criminal law reform and criminal justice policy supports considerations given to non-human victims of crimes. Criminal law protects vulnerable victims, the ostensible purpose of the law. Animals, however, do not enjoy the protection fully in the current set up of the law. A significant number of legal systems offer protection to people and their assets. Few laws are there that protect the rights of animals. Animals independently deserve a set of animal rights, different from their generalization as properties. This implies that animals have no set position in the legal system that addresses their grievances and afflictions. In several cases that involve animal rights, the case set involves the human guardians of the animals, who speak for animals. Currently, there exists no full protection of animals in the criminal law. To achieve full pro tection of animals’ rights in the legal system, their representation should change from their status as property. Instead, they should have full representation in the legal system and clear mechanisms set to address the grievances of animals. They should speak for themselves and their recognition as sentient. The members are to pay full regard to animal welfare. Criminology should show concern to harm to animals. There should be mechanisms to address green criminology. This involves crimes against the environment. Animals’ rights to sustainable utilization are fundamental. In doing this, such criminology attempts to confront harm against animals and crimes against the environment. Cases of mistreatment of animals and violation of their rights that brings harm to the animals should receive appropriate treatment. Green criminology is a topic that continues to draw attention to many organizations that lobby for animals’ rights. The UK was notably the first country to implement the law on animal rights. The Act abolishing improper treatment of cattle, with cruelty, came to law in 1822. The UK government recognizes animals as sentient beings. Its devotion aims to the protection of animals welfare is high. In1911, a law passed in the UK channeled for the protection of animals. International laws recognize animal rights. In 1997, there was a law by the European Union that officially acknowledged animals as sentiment beings. The EU requires its member countries to conform to the law set and recognize animals as sentiment beings. There are in existence, multilateral environmental agreements that recognize the need to protect biodiversity including animals. The United Nations crime commissions and congresses acknowledge environmental crimes and crimes to animals. International laws, therefore, are sufficiently concerned with animal rights. Environmental victimization is the state where the environment gets subjected to unhealthy practices, which lea d to its pollution, and leaves it in worse states that it should be. Environmental victimization takes several means, whereby, the environment is misused and wasted with its resources being depleted, while some become dormant. According to Beck et a l., 1994 environmental problems arise from social factors like reflexive modernization, globalization, as well as individualism. Becks position about mass media is incredibly transparent; however,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Family Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Family Violence - Essay Example As the causes of family violence are understood, there are effective methods that society can employ to reduce the frequency of this horrific behavior. Patterns. There are many patterns relevant to family violence which have been identified by health and law enforcement officials. The first of these is the patterns associated with cause. It should be stressed that seeking a simple, single identifying cause is not the correct approach. In fact, "one-dimensional accounts of cause and effect are manifestly inadequate" (Shipway 4). One of the many causes for family violence is the fact that it can be a learned behavior. It is common knowledge that children who grow up in abusive environments have a much higher likelihood of becoming abusers themselves when compared to those children who have been raised in non-violent homes. There is also the matter of individual deviant behavior. Sometimes, regardless of an individual's history, they turn violent and are unable to control their impulses. There are also behavioral patterns associated with family violence. One major pattern in this category is that of substance abuse. Whether they are over-consuming alcohol or using street drugs, individuals who abuse these substances tend to be involved in family violence incidents more frequently. Another behavioral pattern is that of rage, or "acting out." For whatever reason, when these people are under stress, they tend to strike out violently. The most frequent recipient of this violence is a family member. There are two victim response patterns that are particularly noteworthy. The first is the tendency to react to violence with violence. In many cases, an abuser will initiate an act of violence against a family member, only to have that person turn violent themselves. Many a drunken husband has found that a wife with a frying pan can be a formidable opponent. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the victim response of total passivity. In this pattern, the victim never stands up for themselves and just takes whatever abuse the violent party wants to subject them to. Strategies. Once the patterns are identified, there are some strategies that can be implemented which will address and help resolve the problem. In terms of social policy, there is the need to address the issues of negative learned behavior, provide behavioral modification tools for the individual actors, and ensure the protection of the victims. It is important that there be a multi-agency approach to these solutions. For example, instead of simply relying on law enforcement to battle the criminal aspect of family violence, social services should respond by "setting up treatment centers for the violators, offering them aggression management therapy, and at the same time supporting the women through assertiveness training and therapy" (Shipway 15). As education is provided so that the pattern of learned violence is addressed, therapy could be included so that effective behavior modification could supplement that education. These two strategic efforts, combined with law enforcement's protection of the victims or removal of the abuser from the family environment, present a combination of methods that, when taken together, are more effective than each one standing alone. With the combination of understanding the patterns that contribute to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Criminology - Essay Example Considering non-human victims of harm in criminology involves victims as animals and victims of environmental crime. The international centre for criminal law reform and criminal justice policy supports considerations given to non-human victims of crimes. Criminal law protects vulnerable victims, the ostensible purpose of the law. Animals, however, do not enjoy the protection fully in the current set up of the law. A significant number of legal systems offer protection to people and their assets. Few laws are there that protect the rights of animals. Animals independently deserve a set of animal rights, different from their generalization as properties. This implies that animals have no set position in the legal system that addresses their grievances and afflictions. In several cases that involve animal rights, the case set involves the human guardians of the animals, who speak for animals. Currently, there exists no full protection of animals in the criminal law. To achieve full pro tection of animals’ rights in the legal system, their representation should change from their status as property. Instead, they should have full representation in the legal system and clear mechanisms set to address the grievances of animals. They should speak for themselves and their recognition as sentient. The members are to pay full regard to animal welfare. Criminology should show concern to harm to animals. There should be mechanisms to address green criminology. This involves crimes against the environment. Animals’ rights to sustainable utilization are fundamental. In doing this, such criminology attempts to confront harm against animals and crimes against the environment. Cases of mistreatment of animals and violation of their rights that brings harm to the animals should receive appropriate treatment. Green criminology is a topic that continues to draw attention to many organizations that lobby for animals’ rights. The UK was notably the first country to implement the law on animal rights. The Act abolishing improper treatment of cattle, with cruelty, came to law in 1822. The UK government recognizes animals as sentient beings. Its devotion aims to the protection of animals welfare is high. In1911, a law passed in the UK channeled for the protection of animals. International laws recognize animal rights. In 1997, there was a law by the European Union that officially acknowledged animals as sentiment beings. The EU requires its member countries to conform to the law set and recognize animals as sentiment beings. There are in existence, multilateral environmental agreements that recognize the need to protect biodiversity including animals. The United Nations crime commissions and congresses acknowledge environmental crimes and crimes to animals. International laws, therefore, are sufficiently concerned with animal rights. Environmental victimization is the state where the environment gets subjected to unhealthy practices, which lea d to its pollution, and leaves it in worse states that it should be. Environmental victimization takes several means, whereby, the environment is misused and wasted with its resources being depleted, while some become dormant. According to Beck et a l., 1994 environmental problems arise from social factors like reflexive modernization, globalization, as well as individualism. Becks position about mass media is incredibly transparent; however,

Love and Memory in Deuteronomy Essay Example for Free

Love and Memory in Deuteronomy Essay Love and Memory in Deuteronomy, is the prompt for this weeks reflection paper. First, we must identify what each of those terms means to us in context to Deuteronomy and for me Love does not just mean love in the sense that we all know. Although you could easily write a reflection amount the many ways God displayed his love to his people, like when he parted the seas for them and crushed the Egyptians behind them, or when he was slow to anger when they chose to worship Baal while Moses was a top Mt. Sinai, but I choose to interpret love in Deuteronomy as Gods continued faithfullness to his people. Know therefore that the Lord your God is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments, to a thousand generations. (Deuteronomy 7:9, English Standard Version) Here God is described as a faithful God, and one who will always love those that love him, and follow his word. This is such a powerful verse and really speaks to the faithfullness of God to his people, here it shows that God is obligated to us, that he must love those that love him. I think it also shows that he is bound to look out for us because he is our faithful creator, and that as the creator he is obligated to look out for us, to satisfy us, and provide for us, and ultimately look out for us enough so that we may seek him out and follow him with out Faith. That creation of the Covenant is the ultimate example of Gods faithfullness to us as it takes out all mystery and makes things most certain for us, and shows his commitment to us as a people, because of the covenant we know all the cornerstones of His divine government. The many I wills in Deuteronomy cover everything that we as a people might need in both the past, present, and future. There is no avenue of life that we can venture to where we can not find God, and he has given us clear definition of His heart and intentions by his word and covenant. Gods love in Deuteronomy can best be described as his faithfullness to us, and as mentioned prior, there is no greater example of this than his Covenant, and new Covenant with us through Jesus Christ. And you shall remember the whole way that the Lord your God has led you these forty years in the wilderness, that he might humble you, testing you to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep his commandments or not. (Deuteronomy 8:2, English Standard Version) Memory plays a huge role in Deuteronomy as God is very clear in this verse, that the people are to remember, that all they have been through was a way for God to see what was in their heart, to see what kind of people they were. Memories, in general, throughout time are always a great way to see someones true heart. There were times the people worshipped false idols or cried out against the Lord, and in those moments peoples true natures were revealed, the memories of those times are a great reminder of where people stood, and as it says in that verse that is what it was all about, was for God to measure their true hearts. This principle is still the same today, we are often judged by our past deeds, and it is not because we do not believe people can not change or that people do not deserve new chances, but often times we are what we do, and again the memories of our past actions are a great way to measure who we are as people.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Understanding The Dell Direct Distribution Channel Commerce Essay

Understanding The Dell Direct Distribution Channel Commerce Essay The direct model refers to the fact that Dell does not use the retails channel, but sells its PCs directly to customers through its website, this way the intermediary steps that may add time and cost are eliminated, and Dell is directly linked to its customers. The direct approach allows Dell to build a relationship, which makes it quick and easy for customers to do business with Dell. Supplier DELL Final Customer The build-to-order model enables Dell to keep inventory down very low compared to competitors like Compaq and IBM. Dell has a low inventory of five to ten days, while Compaq and IBM have inventory of four weeks or more. Dell purchases a significant number of components from single sources. In some cases, alternative sources of supply are not available. In other cases Dell may establish a working relationship with a single source, even when multiple suppliers are available, if the company believes it is advantageous to do so when considering performance, quality, support, delivery, capacity and price (Annual Report, 1996). If the supply of a critical single-sourced material or component were delayed or curtailed, Dells ability to ship the related product in desired quantities and in a timely manner could be adversely affected. Even where alternative sources of supply are available, qualification of the alternative suppliers and establishment of reliable supplies could result in delays and a possible loss of sales, which could affect operating results adversely (Annual Report, 1996). An Event:- On 21 September 1999, an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 struck Chichi, Taiwan. It had devastating consequences. Baum (1999) reports that after the disaster more than 2,200 people lost their lives, more than 50,000 buildings were destroyed and total industrial production losses were estimated as $1.2 billion. This area features high production concentration of many other computer components, e.g. motherboards (more than two-thirds of world consumption in 1999) and notebook displays. Local producers of computer memory, TSMC and UMC being the leading Taiwanese suppliers, lost significant quantities of work in progress at the time of the earthquake. Sherin and Bartoletti (1999) report that production lines could not restart at the first couple of days after the event as sensitive critical-path equipment had been damaged. The world markets of memory chips reacted very fast to this news, as supply was constrained at the last part of 1999. The spot price of memory chips went up fivefold. computer memory increases were not passed on to consumers as higher product prices, but they were absorbed by the company and were passed on to investors in the form of less stock repurchases. Dell Computer Co. (2000a) announced that during the fourth quarter of 1999 it lost $300 million in revenue due to the Earthquake. Literature Review The global presence of DELL with sales offices in 43 countries, sales presence in 170 countries, 6 global manufacturing sites in Brazil, Tennessee, Texas, China, Ireland and Malaysia clearly defines its leading position in the computer systems market. The annual revenue for Dell Inc was $ 61.8 Billion (FY 2008- 2009). By cutting .the middle man and building PCs, enterprise products like servers, storages, solutions to order, Dell has revolutionized an industry once inundated with unsold inventory and products that quickly became obsolescent. Dells integrated supply chain has allowed it to gain market share while remaining profitable. Dells business strategy includes direct route to market, Supplier relationship and E- Commerce. Dell Direct Model Supplier Relationship (Just In Time Strategy) E- Commerce Direct Model: Dells business model is the envy of many competitors. Most other competitors are in the process of developing a direct market strategy but the transition from existing sales channel is not simple. Dell continues to gain market share by using its knowledge about its customers. First of all, the model eliminates the need to support a widespread network of wholesale and retail dealers, which allows them to avoid dealer mark-ups; avoids the higher inventory costs associated with the wholesale/retail channel and the competition for retail shelf space; and diminishes the high risk of obsolescence associated with products in a rapidly changing technological market. Supplier Relationships: Dell.s integrated supply chain allows it to keep only four days of inventory. Component price in computer industry falls almost 6% a week. The company can provide the component price decline to its customers quickly. In addition, Dell shares demand information with suppliers, so ensuring that inventory is kept to minimum. Dell also enhances cash flow by effectively paying suppliers after customers have settled invoices. Dells relationship with their suppliers has played a key role in their success story. They have found a way to get most suppliers to keep components warehoused within minutes from Dells factories in Austin, Penang, Malaysia, and Limerick, Ireland. This has led them to reduce their number of suppliers from 204 in 1992, to only 47 today, all of whom have been willing to cooperate with their warehousing plan. These suppliers manage their own inventories, while they run parts to Dell as needed. The biggest advantage for Dell is that they dont get b illed for the components until they leave the suppliers warehouse. Dell doesnt take these components until an order is placed, which saves them a lot of money because the prices of PC parts can fall rapidly in just a few months. E-Commerce: Dell has developed a process whereby they can assess the lowest possible price within an hour. Dells e-commerce infrastructure allows dynamic pricing strategy, whereby the same product and service can be sold at different prices, depending on the buyer. As a result of their innovative transformation, Dell sells more than $30 million per day on the Internet, accounting for 30% of their overall revenue. Dell views the Internet as the most genuine and efficient form of their direct model, providing greater convenience and efficiency to customers as well as to Dell. Theoretical Model :- Supply Chain Disruption, both potential and actual are the enemies of all firm. Supply Chain disruption can be defined as Unplanned and Unanticipated event that has disrupted the normal flow of goods and material within a supply chain. Risk Prevails in three categories i.e Internal risk , External Risk and Network related risk( Juttner et al. 2002). Risk can be catogorised in variables. Variables suggested by Ritchie and Marshall ( 1993) include environment, industry, organisation , problem specific, decision maker related variables. Supply Chain Disruption:- Anything that affects the flow and supply of raw material, sub component, finished good from all the way from origin to the final demand point. On the basis of the severity of impacts and their likelihood or probability of occurrence, the major established attributes of disruption can be classified as follows: The most vital attribute of disruption is the inherent cause of disruption. For example, Murphy(2006) categorized disruptions into natural events, external man made events, and internal- man made events. Blizzards, labour strikes, and product recalls would be examples of each category respectively (Murphy 2006). Another vital attribute is on how many spheres or disciplines of the supply chain have been affected by a given disruption at one time. The third vital attribute is whether or not the disruption is associated an environmental change. Disruptions that cause an environmental change usually impact some form of the infrastructure for either a long time period or permanently. The fourth and the final attribute of disruption is the duration of the disruption itself. The framework tests the supply chain risks based on the above mentioned attributes and classifies them as deviation disruption or disaster, based on the severity of the disruption over the supply chain and the probability of occurrence as a parameter for risk calculation, assessment, prevention or mitigation. In order to see the different aspect of risk management in a supply chain, a frame work prepared by Manuj and Mentzer( 2008) has been reviewed.The schematic diagram of the framework is shown below. The framework is created in view with firms having a global outreach who source from different countries. This framework provided is a comprehensive one with both risk management and mitigation factors incorporated in to it. This framework proved to be ideal for risk management and mitigation in Dell, a truly global firm. The framework adopts 5 step approach for Risk management and Mitigation. Risk Identification: Risk identification is an important stage in the risk management process. Consequently, by identifying a risk, decision-makers become aware of events that may cause disturbances. To assess supply chain risk exposures, the company must identify not only direct risks to its operations, but also the potential causes or sources of those risks at every significant link along the supply chain (Christopher  HYPERLINK #idb3et al.HYPERLINK #idb3, 2002). Hence, the main focus of supply chain risk analysis is to recognize future uncertainties to enable proactive management of risk-related issues. Risk Assessment and Evaluation: After the risk analysis, it is important to assess and prioritize risks to be able to choose management actions appropriate to the situation. One common method is to compare events by assessing their probabilities and consequences and put them in a risk map/matrix Risk Management Strategy: Different strategies are adopted for various risks according to their importance and nature. Various strategies are suggested in the framework, such as Avoidance, Postponement, Speculation, Hedging, Control, Risk Sharing/Transfer, Security etc. Implementation of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategy:- Once the various strategies have been decided, plans have to be made for implementing the strategies based on their priority. Mitigation of Supply Chain Risk: Mitigation is the most commonly considered risk management strategy. Mitigation involves fixing the flaw or providing some type of compensatory control to reduce the likelihood or impact associated with the flaw. A common mitigation for a technical security flaw is to install a patch provided by the vendor. Sometimes the process of determining mitigation strategies is called control analysis. Expansion of the Framework and explanation of Potential Source of Disruption Recovery:- The global SCRM frame work designed by Manuj and Mentzer (2008) was applied on the Dells Value chain to analyze and identify the Risk. The framework was expanded and broken in to various stage and then applied to the Dell Value Chain. Risk Identification: In this phase various risk were identified by brain storming. The risks were classified in the following sub heads. Supply Risk: This includes of Wrong Supplier selection ,Natural Calamity like Earthquake, Hurricane, Low Inventory levels, Quality Issues , Supply disruption and Price escalation. Operations Risk: This includes Exchange Rate, Country Factors, and Virtual integration network breakdown. Demand Risk: This includes New Competitor, Technology Changes and Demand Fluctuation. Security Risk:- This includes Information system breach and Freight breaches. Risk Assessment and Evaluation: In this phase we have calculated the RPN number. Probability and impact of disruption were quantifies on the scale of 1 to 10 based on the hypothesis on the most severe to be 10 and the least severe to be 1.Eventually the most probable to be 10 and the least probable to be 1. Multiplying the Probability and Probability, RPN was calculated. Risk Management:- In this phase we have suggested the various ways by which an organization can minimize the impact by the risk which were identified in the Risk identification. Risks having high RPN number such as Supply Disruption , Low inventory Level should be attacked first, gradually coming down to the lesser RPN numbers and taking proper measure to minimize the risk. Risk Mitigation: Identifying the severity of disruption, risk mitigation strategy was defined. The academic framework by Manuj and Mentzer(2008) was tested hypothetically over the case of severe supply chain disruption faced by Dell and other computer systems manufacturer, during the time when Taiwan, one of the largest manufacturing base for semiconductor and motherboard production and assembly, suffered an earthquake, which is critically analysed as an unplanned unorganised risk for any functional supply chain in the manufacturing scenario.. After the step wise approach of finalising the framework and implying and expanding it over a real time already occurred situation of crisis it was inferred that severe supply chain disruptions have a great impact on the firm. The existence of a clearly articulated risk management plan for disaster-induced supply disruptions has not appeared in Dells official announcements during the six month period after the event in Taiwan. The inherent supply chain agility of this CDM Company, however, offered it several means of recourse during the month that followed the disruption. Dell operates on a configure-to-order basis, thus the final decision on product configuration rests with Dells customer. The moment an inputs price increases, customers may modify their configuration preferences by requesting less of the expensive input. Veverka (1999) reports that Dell changed its marketing strategy after the Taiwan earthquake in an effort to shift consumer preferences towards low memory products. A second ingredient of Dells supply chain strategy, long-term contracts with suppliers, did not deliver steady prices; despite expectations to the contrary in the PC industry press (Deckmyn, 1999). Baljko-Shah (2000) reports that Dell was forced to buy regular DRAM memories after the Taiwan earthquake, while their prices were high. Dell was planning to incorporate in its most innovative product line best-available technology memories (RDRAM). Contrary to earlier announcements, computer processor unit (CPU) suppliers did not make available on time CPUs compatible with the new technology memories. Dell ended up buying conventional memories during the earthquake-induced shortage in order to meet advertised commitments to increased memory capability in its innovative products. Dell Computer Co. (2000a) announced that during the fourth quarter of 1999 it lost $300 million in revenue. With respect to the framework by Manuj and Mentzer ( 2008) , the disruption at dell, in the case of earthquake in Taiwan at the supplier base, disrupting the dells supply chain can be covered by deploying the Risk resilience. The key points to mitigate the damages caused by the Supply Chain disruption are recommended as below. Postponement of Risk :- Postponement entails delaying the actual commitment of resources to maintain flexibility and delay incurring costs (Bucklin, 1965). It appeared that an increasing trend toward off-shoring provided a motivation for form postponement. Yang et al. (2004) also argue that with increasing attention to mass customization, agile operations, and e-business strategies, there should be more interest in postponement; however, there has been an absence of empirical research supporting this implication. Since global supply chains face high risks, postponement becomes increasingly valuable as the proportion of off-shore components in the final product increases. Therefore, as a preliminary observation, we believe that as the proportion of off-shore components in the final product increases, the likelihood of a supply chain considering investment in form postponement will increase. Speculation of Risk: Speculation (also called selective risk taking) is a demand-side risk management strategy that is the opposite of postponement (Bucklin, 1965). It includes such actions as forward placement of inventory in country markets, forward buying of finished goods or raw material inventory, and early commitment to the form of a product, all in anticipation of future demand. In the interviews, speculation emerged as the most commonly used strategy to address uncertainty in the business Environment: Hedging of Risk: In a global supply-chain context, hedging is undertaken by having a globally dispersed portfolio of suppliers and facilities such that a single event (like currency fluctuations or a natural disaster) will not affect all the entities at the same time and/or in the same magnitude. For example, dual sourcing can be used as a hedge against risks of quality, quantity, disruption, price, variability in performance, and opportunism (Berger et al., 2004), but dual sourcing requires more investment than single sourcing. Transfer of Risk:- The transfer of risk primarily encompasses a risk sharing strategy in a case of severe supply disruption by sharing it with 3rd party suppliers and allies. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION, IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH:- Conclusion:- Supply chain risk management is a decision process often requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Typically, risk mitigation and contingency planning entails skills in operations strategy and supply chains. After a close analysis of the Dell Direct Supply Chain system considering the impact of the Taiwan earthquake on the dell by the frame work developed by Munoj and Mentzer ( 2008). The overall objective of the framework is to reduce the impact of disruption and understanding the various factors that play a role in the post- disruption recovery and decision making process. Dell Computers doctrinal commitment to minimal inventories, however, is well known. Companies with similar strategic commitments are unlikely to be interested in risk mitigation policies involving emergency inventories along the supply chain. In this case, risk transfer is left as the main option to consider, including contracts with emergency suppliers and insurance contracts. In light of Kunreuther and Bantwals (2000) discussion on rigidities in the successful introduction of Cat-Bonds, one alternative risk transfer instrument, the latter task may be challenging strategy to apply, but appears to be worth the effort. Scope for Future Research :- The Supply chain Disruption Management framework and disruption management process model have areas of interest that have not been able to be explored in this research leaving multiple area for future research. First area of research is understanding of the decision making process and its operational and behavioural factors. Second area of future research is the impact on the risk that disruption and firm strategies have. Putting to practice supply chain theories in order to bridge supply chain strategy with company financial performance is a daunting task. Supply chain theory attempts to clarify the complex interconnections among many actors in supply networks. Yet, it is unclear whether simple formulas for supply chain performance, encompassing a few variables, will have general application to business practice. In addition, it is difficult to design empirical studies that would isolate the effect of supply chain strategy on business performance from other company decisions and environmental variables. The study of supply chain disruptions may provide an interesting exception to the latter restriction, in that disruption impact may test whether supply chain management affects Company risk structure. There is a fast growing literature on alternative methods of risk transfer. It would be interesting to explore whether the latter methods may shield customised product direct marketing companies from investors uneasiness after disruptions in component markets.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Tobacco Smoking :: Argumentative Persuasive Example Essays

Tobacco smoking first started sometime in the 1400s. It was invented by natives in the Bahamas Islands. Instead of just pulling out a paper rolled cigarette, they had pipes. One end of the pipe was filled with burning tobacco leaves, while the other end of the pipe was where they inhaled the smoke. Many people all over the world today have been taken into this habit. Worldwide, there are approximately one billion smokers. This habit is extremely addicting because of a substance called nicotine found within each cigarette. Once a person is sucked into this dirty habit, it is hard for them to quit.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The smoke from a cigarette, consists of 100 million more harmful substances than the most polluted air. It also contains chemicals in it that many people don’t know of. Some of these chemicals include acetone (nail polish remover), ammonia (a household cleaner), cadmium (battery acid),and formaldehyde (preserves dead bodies). All of these chemicals are found in just one cigarette. These chemicals aggravate asthma and allergies by directly bothering the respiratory membranes. Because of this, it can trigger the production of excess mucus and cause sensitive airways in the lungs to tighten.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Tobacco smoking is the largest cause of death that can be prevented. Everyday, about a few thousand people die from this fatal death stick. This means that every eight seconds. This kills more people than the worst epidemic diseases. Tobacco even affects your physical appearance. It can make your skin wrinkled and older looking, cause your teeth to turn yellow, and give your breath and clothes a dingy odor. Researchers say that smokers who smoke 10-20 cigarettes a day live on an average of five years less than non-smokers. To look on the bright side, if smokers quit, it is possible that the damage done to the lungs can be repaired.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cigarette smoke is so dangerous and so powerful that it can cause 17 different kinds of cancer. The cancer that is the most obvious and seen most often is lung cancer. Other places where cancer can sprout are in the throat, gullet, mouth, esophagus, pancreas, stomach, kidney and the bladder. Not only does tobacco smoke cause cancer, it can cause chronicle cough and bronchitis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  However, tobacco smoke doesn’t only cause many harmful and fatal diseases, but it also influences things like asthma, angina, hay fever, allergic rhinitis and shiver. Inhaling the smoke does a lot of harm to both

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Jamaican Patois Essay -- essays papers

Jamaican Patois Jamaican Patois, otherwise known as Patwa, Afro. Jamaican, just plain Jamaican or, Creole, is a language that has been until quite recently referred to as"ungrammatical English."(Adams, 199 1, p . I 1) Creole languages are actually not unique to Jamaica, they are found on every continent although their speakers often do not realize what they are. The rest of the terms refer strictly to Jamaican Creole. Creoles are languages that usually form as the result of some human upheaval which makes it impossible for people to use their own languages to communicate. What people often refer to as the 'bad' or 'broken-English' of Jamaica are actually local Creoles that usually come about through a situation of partial language learning (Sebba 1, 1996, p.50-1.) The technical definition of the term Creole means-, a language which comes into being through contact between two or more languages. The most important part about this definition is that a new language comes about which was not there before, yet it has some characteristics of the original language(s) and also has some characteristics of its own. The Creole of Jamaica and the Caribbean is referred to as an 'English-lexicon' and this language came about when African slaves were forced into a situation where English, or at least a very reduced form of English, was the only common means of communication. The slave traders and owners spoke English while the slaves spoke a variety of African languages and the slaves had to assimilate by learning English which explains why much of the vocabulary is English in origin. Although there is much English vocabulary, many words were also adopted from African languages when no equivalent English word could be found such as, wo... ... 16. 6."Irie Time."Irie Time Website. On-line. Internet. Available WWW: http//www. owlnet. rice. edu/-don/index 1. html 7. Marley, Bob, Redemption Song, Uprising, 1980. 8. Nicholas, Tracy. Rastafari.- A Way of Life. Chicago: Research Associates School Times Publication, 1996. 9. Pryce, Jean T."Similarities Between the Debates on Ebonics and Jamaican."Journal of Black Psychology, 23 (August 1997): 238-241. 10. Seeba, Mark."How do you spell Patwa."Critical Quarterly 38 (1996): 50-63). 11. Seeba, Mark."London Jamaican: Language systems in interaction."Language 72 (1996): 426-427. 12. Sheridan, Maureen."The Beat Goes On: Dub Poets Explore Patois Of The People."Billboard 10 April 1993: 1, 73, 75. 13. Snider, Alfred, C. (Dr. Tuna,) Feb. 25, 1998. Rhetoric of Reggae Speech 214 Class. 14. Snider, Alfred C. E-mail to Speech 214 class. 28 Jan. 1998.