Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Electrophoresis Separation Of Proteins Cytochrome C, Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, And Serum Albumin By Using Isoelectric Focusing System ( Ief ) Essay, Research Paper Electrophoresis Separation of Proteins Cytochrome C, Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, and Serum Albumin by Using Isoelectric Focusing System ( IEF ) Introduction Proteins are composed of aminic acids. All aminic acids are amphiprotic molecules dwelling of three types of amino acids: impersonal, acidic, and basic. Therefore, for any protein there is a characteristic pH, called the isoelectric point ( pi ) , at which the protein has no net charge and hence will non travel in the electric field. Electrophoresis takes advantage of this characteristic. Proteins are electrophoreased, and the most negatively charged protein moves closest to the cathode, and the most positively charged protein moves closest to the anode. Cytochrome C was expected to travel closest to the cathode, and serum albumen was expected to travel closest to the anode. Merely cytochrome C was expected to travel to the cathode. The other three proteins were expected to travel toward anode. The intent of cataphoresis was to see how a difference in pi makes a difference in the cataphoretic mobility of protein. Materials and Methods Four proteins were electrophoreased by utilizing the Tris-Glysin buffer of pH 8.6 and a horizontal agarose gel 1.1 % in isoelectric focussing ( IEF ) at a electromotive force of 175 V and at a current of 79 ma. The agarose gel was made by blending 0.18g of agarose in 1.5ml of Tris-Glysin buffer with a pH of 8.6. That is 100 % * 0.18 / ( 0.18 + 15 ) = 1.1 % of agarose gel. 15? ? cubic decimeter of each protein sample was loaded into each sample application good on the agarose gel without blending with glycerol solution. After the agarose gels were placed on the phase of the cataphoresis chamber, Tris-Glysin buffer of pH 8.6 was filled in the cataphoresis chamber carefully until the agarose gels were somewhat covered with the buffer. Four proteins had electrophoreased for approximately 50 proceedingss. The agarose gels were removed from the cataphoresis chamber and stained overnight with the Coomassie Blue to visualise proteins in the agarose gel. Consequences Well 1 Cytochrome C pI 10.2 Well 2 Myoglobin pi 7.2 Well 3 Hemoglobin pi 6.8 Well4 Serum albumin pI 4.8 Sample Volume 15? ? cubic decimeter PH of buffer 8.6 Voltage 175 V Current 79 ma Runing Time 0.8 hour Table 1 shows the conditions of this IEF cataphoresis. 15? ? cubic decimeter of each cytochrome C, myoglobin, haemoglobin, and serum albumen were loaded into the well as indicated in Table 1. Well 1 is the bottom well in Figure 1. A electromotive force of 175 V and a current 79 ma was applied in the buffer of pH 8.6 for 50 proceedingss, and bubbles were observed on the electrode during the cataphoresis. Figure 1 shows that cytochrome ( *1 in Figure 1 ) moved closest to the cathode, and serum albumen ( *4 ) moved closest to the anode. Myoglobin ( *2 ) and haemoglobin ( *3 ) moved toward the anode, but hemoglobin moved further from the well than myoglobin. Discussion The consequences support the original hypothesis that cytochrome C will travel closest to the cathode, and myoglobin and haemoglobin will travel to the anode with serum albumen being the closest to the anode. These consequences clearly show the relationship between motion of proteins and their isoelectric point ( pi ) . The greater the difference is between pi of proteins and pH of the buffer, the farther the proteins are from the well in this experiment. The protein with a higher pi than the pH of the buffer was positively charged because it accepted hydrogen ions from the buffer. Then this positively charged protein moved to the negative part, or cathode because it was attracted by hydroxyl ions formed at the cathode by the electrode reactions. When this protein bonded with hydroxyl ions, it became impersonal and stopped its motion. On the other manus, the protein with lower pi than the pH of the buffer was attracted by the positive part, or anode, where H ions were formed. Since this protein released H ions to the buffer, it became negatively charged and moved to the anode to bond with H ions to go impersonal. The IEF cataphoresis utilizing agarose gels have been used by research workers, and this technique has proved to be an efficient method for dividing little measures of proteins. U. Ravnskov ( 1975 ) provinces in his article Low molecular weight albuminuria in association with paroxysmal myoglobinuria that agarose gel cataphoresis is a great method to divide myoglobin and haemoglobin. The difference between haemoglobin and myoglobin in pi is 0.4, yet the IEF horizontal agarose gel cataphoresis with 15? ? cubic decimeter of measure visualized this difference. A survey performed by C. Caudie, O. Allauzen, J. Bancel, and R. Later ( 2000 ) used agarose gel IEF and IgG immunorevelation to observe IgG oligoclonal sets ( OCB ) . Their decision was that IEF with immune sensing is the most sensitive and specific trial for the sensing of chronic CNS redness. Similar research was performed by J. Lunding, R. Midgard, and CA. Vedeler ( 2000 ) who compared the high quality of IEF, agarose gel cataphoresis ( AGE ) , and IgG index in sensitivity and specificity in observing nervous system upset. Restricted OCB were found in IEF and AGE, and the research workers found that more accurate consequences were obtained from IEF. Besides, IEF was far better than IgG index in finding intrathecal IgG synthesis. As research workers recommended IEF, the migration of all four proteins were successful with IEF utilizing the horizontal agarose gel even with the little sum of protein samples. This technique could be used in analysis, purification, and sensing of proteins . Improvements could be made in the declaration of the protein set in the agarose gel and experimental clip. Improvement in declaration could be achieved by cut downing the diffusion. An addition of the viscousness of the agarose gel reduces the diffusion, and declaration would therefore addition. The inauspicious consequence of this method is that it would decelerate down the experiment because the addition of viscousness of the agarose gel increases the clash of proteins. Increasing the experimental clip reduces the declaration and therefore is non ever a successful method to better declaration. This method would non be a good method for the proteins cytochrome C, myoglobin, haemoglobin, and serum albumen because Figures 2, 3, 4, and 5 show that haemoglobin and serum albumens are greater in size. That is, haemoglobin and serum albumens tend to be influenced by the clash. Another method to better the declaration is to increase the strength of the electric field. This method besides re duces the clip of the migration of the proteins. The lone thing to be careful with about this method is the temperature of the agarose gel because the high electric field produces heat, and this might do the proteins to be denatured. Literature Cited Ravnskov, U. ( 1975, February ) . Low molecular weight albuminuria in association with paroxysmal myoglobinuria. [ Abstract ] Clin Nephrol 1975 Feb ; 3 ( 2 ) . 65-9. Retrieved January 31, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? cmd=Retrieve amp ; db=PubMed A ; list_uids=47277 A ; dopt=Abstract Caudie, C. , Allauzen, O. , Bancel, J. , and Later, R. ( 2000 March-April ) . Role of isoelectric focussing of cerebrospinal fluid Ig G in the early biological appraisal of multiple induration. [ Abstract ] Annales de Biologie Clinique. Vol. 58, Issue 2, 187-93. Retrieved February 2, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? cmd=Retrieve amp ; db=PubMed A ; list_uids=10760705 A ; dopt=Abstract Lunding, J. , Midgard, R. , and Vedeler, CA. ( 2000 Nov ) . Oligoclonal sets in cerebrospinal fluid: a comparative survey of isoelectric focussing, agarose gel cataphoresis and IgG index. [ Abstract ] Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Nov ; 102 ( 5 ) . 322-5. Retrieved February 2, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? cmd=Retrieve amp ; db=PubMed A ; list_uids=11083510 A ; dopt=Abstract Natural Toxins Research Center at Texas A A ; M University. Isoelectric concentrating. Retrieved January 29, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //ntri.tamuk.edu/if/if.html Bibliography Literature Cited Ravnskov, U. ( 1975, February ) . Low molecular weight albuminuria in association with paroxysmal myoglobinuria. [ Abstract ] Clin Nephrol 1975 Feb ; 3 ( 2 ) . 65-9. Retrieved January 31, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? cmd=Retrieve amp ; db=PubMed A ; list_uids=47277 A ; dopt=Abstract Caudie, C. , Allauzen, O. , Bancel, J. , and Later, R. ( 2000 March-April ) . Role of isoelectric focussing of cerebrospinal fluid Ig G in the early biological appraisal of multiple induration. [ Abstract ] Annales de Biologie Clinique. Vol. 58, Issue 2, 187-93. Retrieved February 2, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? cmd=Retrieve amp ; db=PubMed A ; list_uids=10760705 A ; dopt=Abstract Lunding, J. , Midgard, R. , and Vedeler, CA. ( 2000 Nov ) . Oligoclonal sets in cerebrospinal fluid: a comparative survey of isoelectric focussing, agarose gel cataphoresis and IgG index. [ Abstract ] Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Nov ; 102 ( 5 ) . 322-5. Retrieved February 2, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? cmd=Retrieve amp ; db=PubMed A ; list_uids=11083510 A ; dopt=Abstract Natural Toxins Research Center at Texas A A ; M University. Isoelectric concentrating. Retrieved January 29, 2001 from the WWW: hypertext transfer protocol: //ntri.tamuk.edu/if/if.html
Thursday, April 23, 2020
he marketing management philosophy that holds that achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors do. The Selling Concept. This is another common business orientation. It holds that consumers and businesses, if left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the selling companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. We will write a custom essay sample on Selling concept or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This concept assumes that consumers typically sho9w buyi8ng inertia or resistance and must be coaxed into buying. It also assumes that the company has a whole battery of effective selling and promotional tools to stimulate more buying. Most firms practice the selling concept when they have overcapacity. Their aim is to sell what they make rather than make what the market wants. SELLING CONCEPT The idea that consumers wll not buy enough of the organizations products unless the organization undertakes large-scale selling and promotion effort. Advantage: When the firm have overcapacity, selling concept become beneficial to sell their product. It can also be applicable in non-profit organizations or societies (See the example). Disadvantage: Selling is largely a wasteful activity because a company truly practicing marketing concept will not need to sell its product. Marketing make selling redundant. Selling consume a lot of organizational resources, as the company force the product on customer. Example: A political party, will vigorously sell its candidate to voters as a fantastic person for the job. The candidate works hard at selling him or herself shaking hands, kissing babies, meeting donors and making speeches. Much money also has to be spent on radio and television advertising, posters and mailings. Candidate flaws are often hidden from the public because the aim is to get the sale, not to worry about consumer satisfaction afterwards. The third marketing philosophy is called the Ã¢â¬Å"selling conceptÃ¢â¬ . The selling concept proposes that the basic function of the organization is to convince people to purchase its products. Perhaps the Ã¢â¬â known practitioner of the selling concept in the arts is Danny Newman (1977), who advocates reliance on subscription sales as the means of ensuring survival. His approach relies on sales-stimulating devices such as discounting and advertising. With regards to promotion, Newman suggests the importance of Ã¢â¬Å"floridity of statement and showmanshipÃ¢â¬ ¦ we should fill our brochures with readable, entertaining, bright material. Above all, they must be invested with selling thrustÃ¢â¬ . The problem with this approach is that it assumes that, for any product, a market can be generated through promotional and pricing manipulations. This assumption, especially in the arts, may not be warranted. Furthermore, the strategy that accompanies the selling concept is often undirected and unfocused in an effort to create mass appeal. This can result in an ineffective promotional campaign and ultimately can disillusion customers whose expectations are inflated and then not realized. The selling concept: Consumer and business, if left along, wont buy enough of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products. The concept is practiced most aggressively with unsought goods. Goods that buyers do not think of buying, such as insurance and encyclopedia. Also practiced in overcapacity. Aim is to sell what is made rather than what market wants. Consumers will buy products only if the company promotes/ sells these products. The Selling Concept The selling concept holds the idea- Ã¢â¬Å"consumers will not buy enough of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products unless it undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effortÃ¢â¬ . Here the management focuses on creating sales transactions rather than on building long-term, profitable customer relationships. In other words; the aim is to sell what the company makes rather than making what the market wants. Such aggressive selling program carries very high risks. In selling concept the marketer assumes that customers will coaxed into buying the product will like it, if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like it, they will possibly forget their disappointment and buy it again later. This is usually very poor and costly assumption. Typically the selling concept is practiced with unsought goods. Unsought goods are that buyers do not normally think of buying, such as insurance or blood donations. These industries must be good at tracking down prospects and selling them on a productÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits. The Selling Concept 1. undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort 2. The Selling Concept is suitable with unsought goodsÃ¢â¬âthose that buyers do not normally think of buying, such as insurance or blood donations. 3. Focus of the selling concept starts at the production level. Any company following selling concept undertakes a high risk. 5. The Selling Concept assumes Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"customers who are coaxed into buying the product will like it. Or, if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like it, they will possibly forget their disappointment and buy it again later. 6. The Selling Concept makes poor assumptions. The selling concept The selling concept holds that customers and businesses, if left alone, will ordinarily, not buy enough of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. The selling concept is epitomized in the thinking of Sergio Zyman, Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s former vice president of marketing: The purpose of marketing is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to make more profit. The selling concept is practiced most aggressively with unsought goods, goods that buyers normally do not think of buying, such as insurance, encyclopedia, and funeral plots. Most firms practice the selling concept when they have overcapacity. Their aim is to sell what they make rather than make what the market wants. However, marketing based on hard selling carries high risks. It assumes that customers who are coaxed into buying a product will like it; and if they do not, they will not return it or bad-mouth it or complain to consumer organizations, or they might even buy it again. The sales concept By the early 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s however, mass production had become commonplace, competition had increased, and there was little unfulfilled demand. Around this time, firms began to practice the sales concept ( or selling concept), under which companies not only would produce the products, but also would try to convince customers to buy them through advertising and personal selling. Before producing a product, the key questions were: Can we sell the product? Can we charge enough for it? The sales concept paid little attention to whether the product actually was needed; the goal simply was to beat the competition to the sale with little regard to customer satisfaction. Marketing was a function that was performed after the product was developed and produced, and many people came to associate marketing with hard selling. Even today, many people us the word Ã¢â¬Å"marketingÃ¢â¬ when they really mean sales.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Tejano Music History. While researching the definition of Tejano music for this paper, the first descriptions that appeared in print were "contagious" and "makes you want to dance" with "diverse influences" that make up the style. After listening to recordings for the class, on the internet, and from the library, the claims of Tejano music being "contagious" and "diverse" are well-substantiated. Though a further examination of the extensive literature reveals the origins and more precise description of the style, undeniably, the initial impression one gains from the writings is one of extreme excitement and contentment. Listening to only a small fraction of the recording collections, what is written about Tejano music holds true. Today, Tejano music is popular not only in Texas and Mexico, but throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Surprisingly, some of the most popular Tejano groups are not even from the Texas-Mexican border; La Sombra and La Mafia hailed from Chicago, Illinois, and Hous ton, Texas (San Miguel Jr.Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music Volume ...2002). Tejano music, nearly a century old, continues to be a booming industry, serving the cultural needs of both Latino and non-Latino listeners.Translated literally, Tejano means "Texas-Mexican". Indeed, the origin of the past and present phenomenon is uniquely Texas-Mexican. A brief excursion to grade school world history will enumerate the geographical origin of Tejano music. After Cortez conquered the Aztec empire, the Mexican population struggled to regain independence from the thievery and tyranny of the Spanish government. Mexico became a Spanish colony for the next 300 years, while Spain continued to conquer new ground. The area now known as Texas was settled by Spain in the late 1600's. San Antonio, located midway between Mexico and the east Texas Missions, was founded in 1718. As of today, San Antonio remains the capital of the Tejano music movement. Later,
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Expert Strategy Guide SAT Question of the Day SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips One great way to insert some extra SAT prep into your daily routine is to do a free SAT Question of the Day. College Board and other websites offer a daily question online and on mobile devices to keep you practicing whenever and wherever you want. In this article weÃ¢â¬â¢ll point you towards the best SAT Questions of the Day, both how to find them and how to use them effectively as you prep for the SAT. Where can you find SAT QOTD? Even though a few companies offer Question of the Day, College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s website is by far the best place for SAT QOTD. As the producers of the test, they release the highest quality questions. You can find their official practice question of the day online here: http://sat.org/qotd. In addition to the practice question, this site will tell you how many students answered it and what percentage answered it correctly. If you need a hint, it will give you one, as well. If you missed a question in the last thirty days, you can access that, too. Finally, College Board will give you an explanation of the correct answer. College Board has discontinued emailing practice questions, but you can pair up with a friend and email each other using their Ã¢â¬Å"Challenge a FriendÃ¢â¬ feature. Another site that offers free SAT questions of the day online is Number2.com (link to https://www.number2.com/exams/sat/daily/question/). This site offers a question a day, but does not have the other features (the answer hint, statistics, or share with a friend) that College Board offers. Do you tweet? College Board does too. You can follow @SATQuestion on Twitter. College Board links you back to their main site, along with some inspirational quotes or helpful tips about the test. How about QOTD on your phone? You can download College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s free apps to your phone, iPad, and Kindle. Here are their links for free apps: iPhones and iOS: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/official-sat-question-day/id361264754?mt=8. Android and Google Play:https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.collegeboard.qotd Amazon:amazon.com/gp/mas/dl/android?p=org.collegeboard.qotd How do you use QOTD effectively and get the most from them? While answering QOTD questions is helpful, there are a few ways to get the most out of your time to improve your score the most. Make sure you understand your mistakes Did you answer it correctly? Read the explanation to make sure you understood the whole concept or skill being tested. The following example explains the answer to the math question above. Did you answer it incorrectly? Write that question down in your notebook. Figure out why you got it wrong and what concept or skill you need to work on to answer it correctly in the future. Figure out your weaknesses and drill them Whether the QOTD is math, reading, or writing, you should understand why you missed a question deeply. If you get stuck on a math question, seek out similar questions that test the same concept. If the vocabulary words are unfamiliar, look them up and shore up your vocabulary. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of a Critical Reading sentence completion question from College Board. We'll hide the answer from you until you're ready. . . . .Did you choose C, Ã¢â¬Å"volatile...liableÃ¢â¬ ? If you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t choose C, what was your mistake? Were you unfamiliar with the vocabulary words? Did you not think about the relationship between the words or correctly interpret to the context of the sentence? Through carefully analyzing your answers and working on your mistakes, you can turn your weaknesses into strengths. When a similar question comes up on the SAT, you can rest easy with the knowledge youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen it dozens of times before. There are some limitations to SAT QOTD. First, because they are short questions, they usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t include passage-based reading or improving paragraph questions. Instead, they tend to be math multiple choice, sentence completions, improving sentences, and identifying sentence errors. Secondly, the difficulty levels of the questions are random. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t choose whether the practice questions of the day are easy, medium, or hard. However, you will get to answer a variety and see how you do on each questions of each difficulty level. This way you can figure out what skills and knowledge require further study and practice. Questions of the Day are a helpful tool and motivator, but they are not a replacement for more extensive study. To sum upÃ¢â¬ ¦ Pros: -SAT Questions of the Day ensure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re preparing every day. -TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re easy to access online or on your cell phone or other devices. -They can be a launching point to help you identify your strengths and weaknesses. Cons: -There usually are no passage-based reading or improving paragraph questions. -The questions are random, so you canÃ¢â¬â¢t choose whether theyÃ¢â¬â¢re easy, medium, or hard. SAT Questions of the Day are a free and easy way to get in some extra practice, learn new words, and most importantly, root out the areas you need to work on the most. Plus with the mobile apps, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re conveniently right there in your pocket or bag. Just donÃ¢â¬â¢t get caught looking at your cell phone during class! What's Next? Now that you know how to prep using QOTD, there's a lot more you can learn about the SAT. What's a good SAT score for you and your goals? Read our step-by-step guide to figure our your own SAT target score. Planning to study with SAT books? Read our in-depth guide to the best SAT prep books. Want to improve your SAT score by 240+ points? Download our free strategy guide for the most important things you need to make big score improvements.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Final exam, answer question - Essay Example External controls are the constraints of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market such as governing laws of firing or hiring an employee, minimum wage requirements, and fixed working hours of an employee (Clift, 2014). Therefore, the degree of the labor market flexibility of a company is inversely correlated with the flexibility of external labor controls. For example, business organizations located in the countries with strict external labor laws can have decreased labor market flexibility. Labor deregulation proponents recommend that if the labor market, flexibility is high then levels of unemployment will decrease, and the company experiences long-term productivity. A developmental state concerns in guiding economic growth and development and proper use of countryÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to meet the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. It tries to stabilize social development and economic growth. A developmental state exploits all countyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and uses national influence to eradicate poverty and create economic opportunities. A developmental state is effective to all countries because it shapes the economic structures and outputs of the countries (Clift, 2014). Different nations use various policies and instruments in states including the regulations of commerce and trade, the use of monetary and fiscal policies, the redistribution of possessions and incomes and direct ownership of key companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ state (Low, 2004). For example, in South Africa, they have committed to build a developmental state that will guide the economic development efficiently through mobilizing societyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and directing them in attaining their common goals. The country provides health care, education, social safety and housing to the needy poor people. The developmental state also builds a strong community service, supports the development of small businesses, creates a friendly
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Put the best subject you fell its good - Research Paper Example Timur claimed to descent from the family of Ghengis Khan towards the 14th centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s end. Benefiting from the chaos in Mongol Transoxania, he laid the foundations of a kingdom in Central Asia. Timur entered Iran in the year 1380 and after taking Baghdad, reduced the power and domination of the Jalayirids in 1393 (Ghasemi, 2015). He captured Bayezid, the Ottoman Sultan, at Ankara in 1402 and after conquering Syria, shifted his focus towards the capaigns to the east of the empire which was in its nascent stages. Timur passed away on an expedition to China in 1405 (Ghasemi, 2015). He had deep interested in the Islamic mysticism known as Sufism. TimurÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy destabilized Iran and his ill-assimilated conquests were divided between his sons in such a way that it was impossible to achieve an integrated and strong Timurid Empire. Timurid state evolved into an integrated Iranian Empire during the reign of Shahrokh Shah, TimurÃ¢â¬â¢s son. Shahrokh Shah made Herat the home of P ersian philosophy and poetry revival that was linked with an effort to claim the leadership in Sunni ideologyÃ¢â¬â¢s propagation for an Iranian center. Western Iran was dominated by Turkman after they had replaced the Jalayirids in Azerbaijan. The Safavids were a militant Islamic Sufi order that came from among the Turkish speaking people at Ardabil. Table 1 shows the Safavid Kings from 1502-1736. In the late 13th century, the Safavids survived TimurÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion in the west of the Caspian Sea. The Safavids had adopted ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ism by 1500 and were all set to use military means to advance ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ism. In 1502, EsmaÃ¢â¬â¢il, Sheikh HeydarÃ¢â¬â¢s son, defeated the ruler of AzerbaijanÃ¢â¬â¢s army and seized Tabriz and at 15 years old, EsmaÃ¢â¬â¢il was declared the Shah (Ghasemi, 2015). His descendants were Shah Tahmasp I, Shah EsmaÃ¢â¬â¢il II, and Shah Mohammad, each of whom expanded the Empire as far as Transoxiana. The control of Safavid Shahs over Iran
Friday, January 24, 2020
Attitudes Towards the Religion of Islam For centuries much of the Western world has targeted the Islamic religion as a threat to others. Many feel that the religion promotes hatred and violence while many others feel that Islam is a peaceful religion. With so many forms of the religion, though, it is hard to put a label on the religion as a whole as being either peaceful or violent. Perhaps the best way to try to answer these uncertainties about the nature of Islam is to look at its holy book, the Koran, and the practices of the religionÃ¢â¬â¢s followers. The Koran is the best source of information for non-Muslims to refer to regarding Islamic beliefs since Islam is followed in so many forms, and there is no central authority that can be consulted for a definitive decree of Islamic regulation. The Koran dictates to its followers what is morally right just as the Bible does for Christians. The Koran discusses a man named Mohammed who is looked at by Muslims as the perfect follower of the Islam faith. His role in the Koran parallels that of Jesus in the Bible. The differe...